One of the inputs in your bicycle suitability map is the condition of pavement (or the age of the pavement) on each stretch of road. Your county GIS office may have a database of pavement conditions called a Pavement Management System (PMS). This system is used to budget for paving project in future years.
A pavement database can be built using a team of inspectors who visit each section of roadway and grade the surface using a rating system published by the Federal Highway Administration. This can be a complex and costly undertaking. Some municipalities have built their pavement database by using simply good, fair, or poor condition. On the map roads are tinted green, yellow, or red for surface condition.
Another approach is to use crowd-sourcing technology. Pavement conditions can be measured by smart phone apps. There are several implimentations:
RoadLab uses accelerometers, gyroscopes and GPS to autonomously measure road roughness on IRI scale (International Roughness Index) before sending the information to cloud servers via cellular network or Wi-Fi.
One article suggests partnering with a taxi company to provide a consistent fleet of vehicles that cover a large subset of the road inventory. The taxi company benefits by using some city fleet services.
The Pothole Patrol: Using a Mobile Sensor Network for Road Surface
Another app is called RoadDroid
The University of Michigan developed an app called PASER to measure road roughness from the accelerometer data collected from smartphones. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/111891
Gap Trap is a Pothole Detection and Reporting System utilizing mobile devices https://www.cs.umd.edu/sites/default/files/scholarly_papers/Burgart.pdf
Once you have measured all the roads for rough pavement and detected all the pot holes, you can decide what to do about them.
Here is one suggestion.
... and now for something completely different ...
"Disruptive Technologies and Transportation"
While this is not about pavement, it is an interesting read on new technnology for transporation issues.
Wouldn't it be nice to have a smart parking lot?